1. Privacy and data breaches: The controversy surrounding privacy and data breaches continued to make headlines in 2021. From the Facebook data leak to the ransomware attacks on Colonial Pipeline and JBS Foods, concerns over personal data security remained at the forefront.

2. COVID-19 contact tracing apps: The development and deployment of contact tracing apps to combat the spread of COVID-19 sparked debates around privacy and surveillance. Many questioned the effectiveness and potential privacy risks associated with such apps.

3. Vaccine passport apps: The introduction of vaccine passport apps also stirred controversy, with discussions around privacy concerns, discrimination, and the potential division of society between those who have been vaccinated and those who haven’t.

4. Online misinformation and fake news: The proliferation of online misinformation and fake news remained a contentious issue throughout the year. Platforms like Facebook and Twitter faced criticism over their handling of false information and the role they play in spreading misinformation.

5. Net neutrality: The debate over net neutrality resurfaced in 2021, with discussions surrounding the FCC’s role in regulating internet service providers and the potential impact on equal access to the internet.

6. Big Tech antitrust concerns: Tech giants like Amazon, Google, Apple, and Facebook faced increased scrutiny and antitrust investigations focused on their market dominance and alleged anti-competitive practices.

7. Remote learning and the digital divide: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the digital divide, with many students struggling to access remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or proper devices. The controversy centered around the unequal access to education opportunities.

8. Cryptocurrency regulations and controversies: The rise of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, led to debates and controversies surrounding their regulation, environmental impact, and involvement in illegal activities.

9. Artificial intelligence and facial recognition technology: The use of facial recognition technology and artificial intelligence algorithms faced criticism for potential biases and invasions of privacy, raising concerns about surveillance and discrimination.

10. Online content moderation: The challenge of content moderation on social media platforms continued to grab headlines, with debates over free speech, censorship, and the responsibility of platforms to remove harmful or misleading content.

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